Dans cette section, vous trouverez un aperçu des ressources externes : une liste des sites web des membres, des informations générales sur le programme conjoint UNFPA-UNICEF sur les MGF, ainsi que les ressources de chaque sujet thématique de la CoP.

Informations générales

Rapports par l’UNFPA et d’UNICEF sur les MGF

Rapports de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé 


Informations spécialisées

  • Aha Foundation, 2019 (update), “Why we hesitate to protect girls from FGM in the United States”, Access here
  • Australian Human Rights Commission, 2016, “FGM Conference: A Human Rights Perspective”, Access here
  • Berer M., 2015, “The history and role of the criminal law in anti-FGM campaigns: Is the criminal law what is needed, at least in countries like Great Britain?”, Access here
  • EIGE, 2018, Estimation of girls at risk of female genital mutilation in the European Union – Belgium, Greece, France, Italy, Cyprus and Malta – Report., Access here
  • FGM New Zealand, 2020, Access here
  • Johnsdotter, S., Mestre, R. M. in Mestre, 2015, “Female Genital Mutilation in Europe: An analysis of court cases”, European Commission, Access here
  • Johnsdotter, S., 2019, “Meaning well while doing harm: compulsory genital examinations in Swedish African girls”, Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, Access here
  • Nabaneh, S, Muula, S. A, 2019, “Female genital mutilation/cutting in Africa: A complex legal and ethical landscape”, Access here
  • Orchid Project, 2020, policy briefing: impacts of COVID-19 on female genital cutting (FGC), Access here
  • Rashid A, Iguchi Y., 2019, Female genital cutting in Malaysia: a mixed methods study. BMJ Open 2019, Access here
  • UEFGM (United to End FGM), 2020, The role of the justice system in the fight against FGM (ELearning), Access here
  • 28 Too Many, 2018, The Law and FGM: An Overview of 28 African Countries, Access here
  • 28 Too Many, 2018, “Somalia: The law and FGM July 2018”, Access here
  • Ellen Gruenbaum, 2001,  The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective, Access here
  • End-FGM Network, 2020, Factsheet 4 : The Development Costs, Access here
  • Finke E., 2006,  Genital mutilation as an expression of power structures: ending FGM through education, empowerment of women and removal of taboos, Access here
  • Gruenbaum E., 2001, The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective, Access here
  • Les discussions de la CoP-MGF, 2020, Note thématique “Mainstreaming FGM” de la CoP-FGM, Access here
  • OMS, 2008, Eliminer les mutilations sexuelles féminines : déclaration inter institutions HCDH, OMS, ONUSIDA, PNUD, UNCEA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, Access here
  • Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies (Institut méditerranéen des études de genre, M.I.G.S.)., 2015, Prise de position du réseau EndFGM: Considérer les MGF comme une question de genre et de développement, Access here
  • Mpinga E.K., Macias A., Hasselgard-Rowe J. et al. , 2016, Female genital mutilation: a systematic review of research on its economic and social impacts across four decades,  Access here
  • Population Reference Bureau, 2013, Ending female genital mutilation/cutting: lessons from a decade of progress, 2013., Access here
  • Shell-Duncan B., Reshma N. and Feldman-Jacobs C., 2016, A state-of-the-art synthesis on female genital mutilation/cutting: What do we know now?, Access here
  • UNICEF, 2013, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change, Access here
  • UNFPA-UNICEF, 2015, Mesurer les progrès, encourager les changements, Access here
  • UN Women, 2017, Rural women explore new solutions to counter customs and poverty driving FGM crisis, Access here
  • UN Women, 2016, Stepping out of the Boma: Maasai women of Tanzania take charge of their own lives and livelihood, Access here
  • UN Women Egypt, 2019, Forces for change: Improving the lives of women in Egypt, Access here
  • UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM, Annual Report 2018 : Accelerating Change, Published in August 2019, Access here
  • WHO, Bishai D., Bonnenfant Y. T., Darwish M., Adam T., Bathija H., Johansen, E., 2010, FGM Cost Study Group of World Health Organization (2010). “Estimating the obstetric costs of female genital mutilation in six African countries, Access here
  • WHO, 2008, Eliminer les mutilations sexuelles féminines : déclaration interinstitutions HCDH, OMS, ONUSIDA, PNUD, UNCEA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, Access here
  • Almroth, Almorth-Berggren et al. (2001), Male complications of female genital mutilation, Social Science & Medicine, Vol 53 (11), 1455-1460. Access here
  • Bartha, E. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation is a Man’s issue too: Kenyan Maasai Activist. Reuters. Access here
  • Chakraborty, P., Osrin, D., & Daruwalla, N. (2020). “We Learn How to Become Good Men”: Working with Male Allies to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls in Urban Informal Settlements in Mumbai, India. Men and Masculinities, 23(3–4), 749–771. Access here 
  • GIZ, Eschborn. (6 February 2013). Engaging men in the abandonment of female genital mutilation. Documentation of the panel discussion. Access here
  • Wardere, H. (2020). FGM is about men, they must help end it. Al Jazeera. Access here
  • UNFPA. (2020). Men and boys are key players in helping to end FGM. Acces here
  • UNFPA. (2017). Annual report, pp 18-19 
  • UNICEF. (2020). Gender transformative approches for the elimination of female genital mutilation. Access here
  • Varol, N., Turkmani, S., Black, K. et al. (2015).The role of men in abandonment of female genital mutilation: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. Access here

CoP MGF, Note pour la discussion thématique sur l’intégration systématique des MGF, Mars 2019



  • 28 Too Many, 2018 (a), SOMALIA: THE LAW AND FGM, Acces here
  • 28 Too Many, 2018 (b) , The Law and FGM: An Overview of 28 African Countries, Access here
  • Aha Foundation, 2019, Why we hesitate to protect girls from FGM in the United States, Access here
  • Australian Human Rights Commission, 2016, FGM Conference: A  Human Rights Perspective, Access here
  • Berer  M., 2015, The history and role of the criminal law in anti-FGM campaigns: Is the criminal law what is needed, at least in countries like Great Britain?,  Acces here
  • Bhalla N., Thomson Reuters Foundation, 2018, Kenyan doctor goes to court to legalise female genital mutilation, Access here
  • Earp Brian D., Shahvisi A., Cambridge University Press, 2019, The law and ethics of female genital cutting, in Female Genital Cosmestic Surgery: Solution to What Problem?, Access here
  • EIGE, 2018, Estimation of girls at risk of female genital mutilation in the European Union - Belgium, Greece, France, Italy, Cyprus and Malta – Report. Access here
  • ECHR, 2005, Case K.A. and A.D. v./ Belgium, Access here
  • EIGE, 2018, Estimation of girls at risk of female genital mutilation in the European Union – Belgium, Greece, France, Italy, Cyprus and Malta, Access hereFGM IN NZ, 2020, FGM and NZ Law, Access here
  • Johnsdotter S. and Mestre R. M., 2015, ‘Female Genital Mutilation in Europe: An analysis of court cases, Access here
  • Johnsdotter S., 2019, Meaning well while doing harm: compulsory genital examinations in Swedish African girls Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, Access here
  • Johnsdotter S., 2009 , The FGM Legislation Implemented: Experiences from Sweden, Malmö University, Available here
  • Maryse A., INTACT Belgique, 2014, Les Mutilations Génitales Féminines : de l’incrimination aux poursuites. Etat des lieux en Belgique et regards européens , Access here
  • Nabaneh S. and Muula S. A., 2019, Female genital mutilation/cutting in Africa: A complex legal and ethical landscape, Access here
  • Rashid A, Iguchi Y., 2019, Female genital cutting in Malaysia: a mixed methods study. Access here
  • STOP FGM Middle East, IndonesiaIraqIran
  • The Council of Europe, 2017, Action against female genital mutilation and forced marriage, Access here
  • The Council of Europe, End FGM European Network, Amnesty International, 2014, Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence: A Tool to end FGM, Access here
  • Thomas A. R., The Sierra Leone Telegraph 2016, Female circumcision – women must have the right to choose – says Dr. Fuambai Sia Ahmadu, Access here
  • United to End FGM, The role of the justice system in the fight against FGM, Access here
  • UNFPA Regional Office for West and Central Africa, 2018, Analysis of Legal Frameworks on Female Genital Mutilation in Selected Countries in West Africa, Access here
  • UNFPA, 2009, Burkina Faso has a strong law against FGM/C,but winning hearts and minds remains crucial, Access here
  • World Bank, 2018, Compendium of International and National Legal Frameworks on Female Genital Mutilation Second Edition , Access here
  • Yusuf C., Fessha Y., 2013, African Human Rights Law journal, Volume 13 No 2:  Female genital mutilation as a human rights issue: Examining the effectiveness of the law against female genital mutilation in Tanzania, Access here
  • 28toomany, 2016, The Medicalization of FGM, Access here
  • Chege J., Askew I. and Liku J., 2001, An assessment of the alternative rites approach for encouraging abandonment of female genital mutilation in Kenya, Access here
  • El-Gibaly O. and Aziz M., 2019, Health care providers’ and mothers’ perceptions about the medicalization of female genital mutilation or cutting in Egypt: A cross-sectional qualitative study, Access here
  • Human Rights Europe, 2010, Violence Against Women: Teliwel Diallo On Female Genital Mutilation, Access here (video)
  • Jaldesa G. W. , Askew I., Njue C. and Wanjiru M., 2005, Female Genital Cutting among the Somali of Kenya and Management of its Complications, Access here
  • Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), 2010, DHS Final Reports, Access here
  • Kenya National Bureau of Statistics Nairobi, 2014, Demographic and health Survey, Access here
  • Kimani S. and Kabiru C., Population Council, 2018, Shifts in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Perspectives of Families and Health Care Providers. Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Women Thrive., Access here
  • Kimani S., Kabiru C. W., Mutechi-Strachan J. and Guyo J., 2020, Female genital mutilation/cutting: Emerging factors sustaining medicalization related changes in selected Kenyan communities, Access here
  • Kimani S., Muteshi J. and Jaldesa G., 2018, Medicalization of FGM/C among the Abagusii of Kenya, Access here
  • Kimani S. and Shell-Duncan B., 2018,  Medicalized Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Contentious Practices and Persistent Debates, Access here
  • Njue C. and Askew I., 2004, Medicalization of Female Genital Cutting Among the Abagusii in Nyanza Province, Access here
  • Obianwu O., Adetunji A., Dirisu O., Population Council, 2018. “Understanding medicalisation of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C): a qualitative study of parents and health workers in Nigeria. Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Women Thrive, Access here
  • Population Reference Bureau, 2018, Understanding the Impact of Medicalisation on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Access here
  • PRB, 2020,  Understanding the Impact of Medicalisation on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Access here     
  • Refaat A., 2009, Medicalization of female genital cutting in Egypt, Access here
  • Richard F. and Decoster K., 2016, Why we should be against the medicalisation of Female Genital Mutilation, Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Girls and Women Thrive consortium Access here
  • Serour G., 2013, Medicalization of female genital mutilation / cutting,  Access here
  • Shell-Duncan B., 2001, The medicalization of female “circumcision”: harm reduction or promotion of a dangerous practice?, Access here
  • Shell-Duncan B., Njue C. and Moore Z., 2017, The Medicalization of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting:What do the Data Reveal?, Access here
  • UNICEF, 2017, Baseline Study Report: Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting and Child Marriage among the Rendille, Access here
  • World Health Organization, 2010, Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation, Access here
  • Yussuf M., Matanda D. and Powell R. A., 2020, Exploring the capacity of the Somaliland healthcare system to manage female genital mutilation/cutting-related complications and prevent the medicalization of the practice: A cross-sectional study, Access here
  • Plus d’articles et recherches du Population Council ici

Des chiffres sur la médicalisation des MGF par pays sont également disponibles sur le site Web de l’UNICEF.

  • 28 Too Many, 2018(a), Somalia: the law and FGM,  Access here
  • 28 Too Many, 2018(b), The Law and FGM: An Overview of 28 African Countries, Access here
  • Africa News, 2018, Kenyan girls smuggled across border for FGM procedure, Access here
  •  All Africa, 2008, West Africa: Cross border FGM the rise, Access here
  • End FGM European Network, FGM in Europe, Access here
  • Gitonga, F. Equality Now, 2019, personal communication
  • GRIGED, 2008, Pratique transfrontalière de l’excision: Etat des lieux etévaluation des actions dans les zones frontalières du Burkina Faso, de la Côted’Ivoire, du Ghana, du Mali et du Niger, Access here
  • Modern Ghana, 2015, FGM Beyond the Borders: Ghanaian crossover to Burkina Faso and Togo to cut their children, Access here
  • Ngianga-Bakwin K., Komba P.N.,2015, Geographic Variation of Female Genital Mutilation and Legal Enforcement in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Senegal, Access here
  • Population Council, 1996, Project Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Girls and WomenThrive , Access here
  • Starr News, 2014, Cross-border Female Genital Mutilation rampant in Upper East region. Ghana, Access here
  • The New Humanitarian, 2008, Cross border FGM/C on the rise, Access here
  • Tobi Tingo N., 2019, personal communication
  • Tostan Digital for all, 2014, Cross border meeting between Senegalese and Gambian communities to discuss ending Female genital mutilation, Access here
  • UNFPA Kenya, 2019, 1st Regional Inter-Ministerial Meeting to #EndCrossBorderFGM, Access here
  •  UNFPA-UNICEF, 2018,  Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation: Accelerating Change, Access here
  • UNFPA-UNICEF, 2019,  Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation: Accelerating Change, Access here
     UNICEF, 2018, Child protection/Female Genital Mutilation, Access here
  • UNICEF, 2016, New statistical report on Female Genital Mutilation shows that harmful practice is a global concern, Access here
  •  Women in The World, 2018, FGM prevalence rate in dramatic decline across Africa, Access here
  • World Health Organization, 2016, Female Genital Mutilation, Access here
  • Wouango J., Ostermann  S. and Mwanga D., 2020, When and How does Law Effectively Reduce the Practice of FGM/C, Access here
  • Hoover J., 2015, Dropping the knife in The Gambia, Access here
  • Johansen R. E. B., Nafissatou J., Laverack G. and Leye E, 2013, What Works and what doesn’t: A discussion of popular approaches for the abandonment of FGM, Access here
  • Peyton N., 2019, Seeking to save money, Sierra Leone village gives up FGM, Access here
  • UNFPA and World Bank, 2004, Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting in Somalia, Access here
  • WHO, 2011, Female Genital Mutilation programmes to date: what works and what doesn’t, Access here
  • Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh S., Sami A, 2012, Centre de droit arabe et musulman. Circoncision masculine et féminine : débat religieux, médical, social et juridique., Access here
  • Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh S., Sami A., 1994, To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision, Access here 
  • Bouhdiba A., 1975, La sexualité en Islam, Access here
  • Cohen, Shaye J. D., Oakland,University of California Press, 2005. Why Aren’t Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant in Judaism here
  • Christianize: Exode 4:25, Josué 5: 7, Actes: 7: 8, Romains 2:28, Romains 4:11, 1 Corinthiens 6:18
  • Earp B.D., Hendry J., Thomson M., 2017, Reason and paradox in medical and family law: shaping children’s bodies, Access here 
  • El-Damanhoury I., 2013,  The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation, Access here 
    End Cutting Girls Nigeria, 2017,  Islam does not support FGMC, Access here (video)
  • Hayford S., Trinitapoli J., 2011, Religious differences in Female Genital Cutting : A Case Study from Burkina Faso, Access here
  • Human Rights Without Frontiers, 2018, Women’s Rights & Religion. A report on women’s rights and Christianity, Islam and Judaism.  here
  • Islam and Population Network, Nigeria, Position Paper
  • Lethome Asmani I. and Sheikh Abdi M., 2008,  Delinking Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting from Islam, Access here
  • Mahmoodi O., 2016, Survey on religious views on FGM,  Access here
  • Newell-Jones K., 2016, Baseline Research Report: Empowering communities to collectively abandon FGM/C in Somaliland, Access here 
  • Offiong A. V., Daily Trust, 2018, Stories of Nigerian women mutilated in secret (Christian perspective), Access here 
  •  Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars: Female Genital Mutilations, Access here
  •  Serour, G. and Abd El-Hameed Ragab, A.R., 2013, Excision (MGF): Entre utilisation incorrecte de la science et compréhension erronée de la doctrine, Access here
  • Shafi School Religious Thinking, Access here
  • Sheikh Abdi M., Population Council 2007, FRONTIERS Program: A Religious Oriented Approach to Addressing FGM/C among the Somali Community of Wajir, Kenya. Access here
  • Sheikh Abdi M., 2008, Survey on religious views on FGM, Access here
  • Stop FGM Middle East, 2005 (a), Religion or Culture, Access here
  • Stop FGM Middle East, 2005 (b), Fatwas against FGM, Access here
  • UNICEF, 2013, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting : a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change, Access here
  • Women’s Rights & Religion. A report on women’s rights and Christianity, Islam and Judaism, Access here


  • Amref, 78 Girls Graduate into Womanhood without “the cut”. Access here
  • Amref, 2019 (a), 545 Girls Graduate to Womanhood without the Cut in Kajiado County. Access here
  • Amref, 2019 (b), Voices the Community as they embrace the Alternative Rite of Passage in place of FGM. Access here
  • Amref, 2018 (a), 287 Girls Graduate from Childhood to Womanhood wihtout « The Cut ». Available here
  • Amref, 2018 (b), Local communities should take ownership of war against FGM. Available here
  • Amref Canada, Stop Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Start the Alternative!, Access here
  • Cook S., 2018, Guest Blog for 28TooMany: Feed the Minds, Do ARP approach work?, Access here
  • Graamans E.P. et al., 2018, PanAfrican Medical Journal: Lessons learned from implementing ARP in the fight against FGM/C, Access here
  • Hughes L., 2018, Alternative Rites of Passage: Faith, rights, and performance in FGM/C abandonment campaigns in Kenya, Access here 
  • Oloo H., Wanjiru M., Newell-Jones K., Population Council 2011. "Female genital mutilation practices in Kenya: The role of alternative rites of passage. A case study of Kisii and Kuria districts.", Access here 
  • UNFPA-UNICEF, 2017, Annual Report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme to End FGM/C: Accelerating Change 17 ways to end FGM/C : Lessons from the field. Companion booklet to the 2016, Access here
  • UNFPA,World Bank, 2004, Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting in Somalia, Acces here
  • Nailantei N., 2018,Rope in elders and traditional healers to lead the fight against female cut, Access here
  • Video: Alternative Rites of Passage to Womanhood: Celebrating girls without “the cut” 
  • Adelufosi et al., 2020, Cognitive behavioural therapy for post‐traumatic stress disorder, depression, or anxiety disorders in women and girls living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review, Access here
  • Ahmadu F., 2007,  Challenging Myths of sexual dysfunction in circumcised women, Access here
  • Berg, R. et al. 2010, Psychological, social and sexual consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C): a systematic review of quantitative studies. Access here  
  • Coho C., Sepulveda R. P., Hussein L. and Laffy C., 2019, Female Genital Trauma: Guidelines for Working Therapeutically with Survivors of FGM, Access here
  • Doctor,  F. "My experience of healing by attending the 2019 Sahiyo Activist Retreat in the U.S.", April 18, 2019. Access here
  • GAMS Belgique, – Femmes, excision et exil – Quel accompagnement thérapeutique possible ?,  Access here
  • International Center for Research on Women, 2017, Mental Health and Ending Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting: Opportunities in U.S. Foreign Policy and Programs, Access here
  • Johnsdotter, Sara (2019): “The growing demand in Europe for reconstructive clitoral surgery after Female Genital Cutting: A looping effect of the dominant discourse?” Forthcoming, in Droit et Cultures. Access here
  • Köbach et al., 2018, ‘Psychopathological sequelae of female genital mutilation and their neuroendocrinological associations’, Access here
  • Knipscheer et al., Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation, Access here
  • Lansana Gberie, “Mental illness: Invisible but devastating. Superstitution often blamed for acute mental health diseases”, Africa Renewal, December 2016 – March 2017. Access here
  • Nawal M. Nour, Karin B. Michels, Ann E. Bryant, “Defibulation to Treat Female Genital Cutting: Effect on Symptoms and Sexual Function”, in Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol.108, No.1, July 2006, pp.55-60. Access here
  • Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, 2010, Psychological, social and sexual consequences of FGM/C: a systematic review of quantitative studies,  Access here
  • OMS, 2020, Informations sur les MGF, Access here
  • OMS, 2018, Care of girls and women living with female genital mutilation. Access here (anglais)
  • OMS, 2016, WHO guidelines on the management of health complications from female genital mutilation, Access here  (anglais)
  • Osman S., Sevalie S., Weston M., 2018, Mental Health in Africa, The Lancet. Access here
  • Peyton N., 2019, FGM Survivors Across Africa Call for Mental Health and Trauma Support”, Access here
  • Sharif Mohamed, F., Wild, V., Earp, B. D., Johnson-Agbakwu, C., & Abdulcadir, J. (2020). Clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation/cutting: a review of surgical techniques and ethical debate. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 17(3), 531–542. Access here
  • Smith H. and Stein K., Psychological and counselling interventions for FGM, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Access here
  • Venoranda R. K., 2020, Long-term mental effects of FGM not addressed enough, Access here
  • Vloeberghs E., Knipscheer J., Van der Kwaak A., Naleie Z., Van Den Muijsenbergh M., 2011,  Veiled pain. A study in Netherlands on the psychological, social and relational consequences of FGM, Access here
  • 28 Too Many, 2016, The psychological effect of FGM, Access here
  • Africa, 2016, Type 4 FGM – Focus: Labia elongation, Access here  
  • Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie (ANSD) Sénégal & ICF, 2018, Sénégal : Enquête Démographique et de Santé Continue 2017, Access here
  • Anonymous author, 2016, Female genital mutilation – An agonising choice, Access here
  • Arora K. S. & Jacobs A. J., 2018, Female genital alterations: A compromise solution, Access here
  • Askew I. et al, 2016, A repeat call for complete abandonment of FGM, Access here
  • Audet, C.,M. et al, 2017, Understanding intra-vaginal and labia minora elongation practices among women heads-of-households in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, Access here
  • Bagnol B. & Mariano E., 2008, Vaginal practices: eroticism and implications for women’s health and condom use in Mozambique, Access here
  • Caliendo, C. et al, 2005, Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings,  Access here
  • Community of Practice on FGM, 2019, “The Removal of the Southieuntes” in Senegal : An unknown type of FGM IV – Interview with Fatou, Access here
  • Ghanaweb, 2016, Genital piercing increasing among Kumasi youth, Ghanaweb, Access here 
  • Kelly B. & Foster C., 2012, Should female genital cosmetic surgery and genital piercing be regarded ethically and legally as female genital mutilation?, Access here 
  • Kitui, B. 2012, Female genital mutilation in South Africa, Access here
  • Koster M. & Price L, 2008, Rwandan female genital modification: Elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species, Culture, Health & Sexuality, Access here
  • Lunde, I. & Sagbakken, M., 2014, Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?,  Access here 
  • Mandal, A., 2018, Health guide for young women regarding labiaplasty, Access here
  • Millner V., S. et al, 2005, First glimpse of the functional benefits of clitoral hood piercings, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Access here 
  • Moulton, L. J. and Jernigan, A. M., 2017, Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review. Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology,  Access here
  • National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF International, 2014, Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013, Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF International.
  • National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF Macro, 2009, Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008, Access here
  • Obianwu, O., 2019, personal communication, Access here
  • Ouedraogo, T., et al, 2018, Gurya cutting and female genital fistulas in Niger: ten cases, Access here
  • Perez, G. M. et al, 2015, Zambian Women in South Africa: Insights Into Health Experiences of Labia Elongation,  Access here
  • Preslar D., Borger J., 2019, Body piercing infections,  Access here
  • Richard F., 2018, Why we should be against the medicalisation of Female Genital Mutilation, International Health Policies, Access here 
  • Scorgie, F. et al, 2010, “Cutting for love”: genital incisions to enhance sexual desirability and commitment in KwaZulu-Natal, SouthAfrica, Access here
  • Thomas, L., 2018, Labia Stretching, Access here 
  • UNHCR, 2001, Guinea: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC), Access here
  • UNICEF, Unknown year of publication, Priorities in child survival, education and protection, Access here 
  • Wahlberg A. et al, 2017, Factors associated with the support of pricking (female genital cutting type IV) among Somali immigrants, Reproductive Health, Access here
  • WHO, 2008, Eliminating Female genital mutilation: An interagency statement, Access here
  • WHO, 2018, Female genital mutilation,  Access here
  • Dridi Ibtissem B., 2010,  Est-ce que ça marche? A propos du tasfih, rituel protecteur de la virginité des jeunes filles tunisiennes, Access here
  • FDA, 2018, Warns Against Use of Energy-Based Devices to Perform Vaginal 'Rejuvenation' or Vaginal Cosmetic Procedures: FDA Safety Communication,  Access here
  • Federal Register, 2006, Skin bleaching drug products for over-the-counter Human use; Proposed rule, Access here
  • Ferhati B., 2010, Les clôtures symboliques des Algériennes : la virginité ou l’honneur social en question, Access here
  • Oranges C.M., Sisti A. & Sisti G, 2015, Techniques de réduction de la Labiaminora: une revue complète de la littérature, Access here
  • Ouar N., Guillier D., Moris V., Revol  M., Francois C. & Cristofari S., 2017, Complications post-opératoires des nymphoplasties de réduction. Étude comparative rétrospective entre résections longitudinale et cunéiforme, Access here
  • Runacres S. A. & Wood P. L., 2016, Cosmetic labia plasty in an adolescent population, Access here
  • Shaw D., Lefebvre G., Bouchard, C., Shapiro, J., Blake, J., Allen, L & Awadalla, A., 2013, Chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, Access here
  • Smarrito S., 2017, Classification of labia minora hypertrophy: A retrospective study of 100 patient cases, Access here
  • Yurteri-Kaplan L., Miranne J. M. & Iglesia C. B., 2014, Vulvaranatomyand labiaminoraplasty, Access here
Sites web des membres et leurs organisations

Dans cette section vous trouverez les sites web des membres de la CoP ainsi que des organisations partenaires. La liste n’est pas exhaustive.
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Réseaux Internationaux

Inter African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children: https://iac-ciaf.net/


Réseaux Européens

End FGM EU: http://www.endfgm.eu/

European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development (EPF): www.epfweb.org


Réseaux Nationaux 

Coalition des ONG de protection et de promotion des droits de l'enfant, luttant contre la traite (colte/CDE) GUINÉE: https://archive.crin.org/en/library/organisations/coalition-des-ong-de-protection-et-de-promotion-des-droits-de-l%E2%80%99enfant-luttant.html

National Council for Child Welfare: https://www.unescwa.org/national-council-child-welfare

Secrétariat Permanent du Conseil National de Lutte contre la Pratique de l'Excision: www.spcnlpe.org

European Insitute for Gender Equality (EIGE): www.eige.europa.eu

UN Women: https://www.unwomen.org

UNDP Nigeria: https://www.ng.undp.org/

UNDP The Gambia: https://www.gm.undp.org/

UNFPA: www.unfpa.org

UNFPA Tanzania: https://tanzania.unfpa.org/en

UNICEF: www.unicef.org

USAID/ Making Cents International: https://www.makingcents.com/


Brooks Foundation: https://www.brooks-foundation.org.uk/

Fondation Marie-Vincent: https://marie-vincent.org/

FONDATION RAMA: https://www.facebook.com/Fondation-Rama-232697623844333/

Mannion Daniels: https://www.manniondaniels.com/

Wallace GLobal Fund: www.wgf.org


Organisations de recherches

Population Council: http://www.popcouncil.org/research/evidence-to-end-fgm-c-research-to-help-girls-and-women-thrive1

Population Reference Bureau: http://www.prb.org/



28 Too Many: https://www.28toomany.org/

Accem: https://www.accem.es/

Advocates for Social Change Kenya (ADSOCK): http://adsock.org/who-we-are/

AFPDE: https://www.afpde.org/

AfriYAN-Rwanda: https://twitter.com/afriyan_rwanda?lang=en

AJCAD Mali: www.ajcadmali.org

Akili Dada: http://www.akilidada.org/

ALIMA Burkina Faso: https://www.alima-ngo.org/fr/burkina_faso

Alliance Nationale des jeunes pour la Santé de la Reproduction et la Planification Familiale: https://www.facebook.com/ANJSRPF/

Amazonian Initiative Movement: https://www.facebook.com/pages/category/Non-Governmental-Organization--NGO-/Amazonian-Initiative-Movement-AIM-111881183539038/

Amref Health Africa, Netherlands: https://amref.org/tag/amref-health-africa-in-netherlands/

APF - Family Planning Association (Portugal): www.apf.pt

APF Lisboa: http://www.apf.pt

Asbl Maison Plurielle: http://www.maisonplurielle.be

Asociacion Casa dei Diritti Sociali della Tuscia: https://cdstuscia.wordpress.com/

Association Italienne Femmes pour le Développement (AIDOS): www.aidos.it

Association TamTam du Monde: https://asso-tamtam.fr/

Arayaa: http://arayaa.com/

Audace Institute Afrique: https://www.audace-afrique.org/

Caritas Schweiz: www.caritas.ch/fgm

Caritas Suisse: www.excision.ch

Centre for Adolescents and Women's Health Initiative (CAWHI): http://www.cawhi.org

Centro SaMiFo (Salute Migranti Forzati) ASL Roma1: https://centroastalli.it/servizi/progetto-samifo/

CILSIDA: www.cilsida.e-monsite.com

CLMGF: http://www.clmgf.be

Commission Nationale des Droits de l'Homme (Djibouti): https://www.cndhd.dj/

COMMUNITY AND FAMILY AID FOUNDATION, Ghana: https://familyaidfoundation.wixsite.com/cafaf/donate

Community Centre for Integrated Development: www.comuceid.org

Community & Youth Development Initiatives (CYDI): https://www.facebook.com/cydi2k/

Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul - Association for Termination of Female Genital Mutilation (ATFGM MASANGA): http://filles-de-la-charite.org/daughters-of-charity-working-for-termination-of-female-genital-mutilation-tfgm-in-masanga-diocese-of-musoma-tanzania/

DSW Tanzania: https://www.dsw.org/en/tag/tanzania/

East African Centre for Human Rights: www.eachrights.or.ke

Education as a Vaccine: https://www.evanigeria.org/

Emayian Integrated Development Organization (EIDO): www.emayian.org

Equality Now: www.equalitynow.org

Equilibres & Populations: http://equipop.org/en/ 

Excision, Parlons-en: http://www.excisionparlonsen.org/

Fédération nationale GAMS France: http://federationgams.org/

Finnish League for Human Rights:

FORWARD: www.forwarduk.org.uk https://ihmisoikeusliitto.fi/

Fraternité Médicale Guinée: https://fmg-ong.org/

FSAN, Himilo and GGD Comunity Health Service: www.himilo.org www.fsan.nl

Future Stars Africa: https://www.futurestarscharity.org.uk/

GAMS Belgique: http://gams.be/en/

Gender Care Initiative (GCI): www.gendercareinitiative.org

Gender Rights Network: https://gadnetwork.org/what-we-do

Groupe d'Appui en Santé, Communication et Developpement (GASCODE): http://gtpeburkina.org/groupe-dappui-en-sante-communication-et-developpement-gascode/

Help a widow save a life: https://www.facebook.com/helpawidowsavealife/

International Solidarity Foundation: https://www.solidaarisuus.fi/in-english/

LebKom e.V: https://www.fulda-mosocho-project.com/

Les Orchidées Rouges, France: https://www.lesorchideesrouges.org/en-gb/home

Management Sciences for Health: https://www.cawhi.org/

Marakwet Girls Foundation: www.marakwetgirlsfoundation.org

Maurisante ngo: www.maurisante.org 

Médecins du Monde-Belgique: https://medecinsdumonde.be/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw8rT8BRCbARIsALWiOvTJMLb8Bwd04RvT91SU4efpZVJA33T9BOU8_OEHTFINKZT_ett92vQaAutrEALw_wcB

Médicos del Mundo Spain: https://www.medicosdelmundo.org/

Msichana Empowerment Kuria: www.msichanaempowermentkuria.co.ke

No Peace Without Justice: www.npwj.org

ONG Femmes Actions et Développement: https://www.facebook.com/ongfadniger/

ONG Solidarité aux Enfants Démunis: https://www.helloasso.com/associations/ong-red-regard-pour-enfants-demunis

Orchid Project: orchidproject.org

Pan African Women Association (PAWA ): www.pawa.no

P&D Factor: http://popdesenvolvimento.org/

Population Council: http://www.popcouncil.org/research/evidence-to-end-fgm-c-research-to-help-girls-and-women-thrive1

Population Reference Bureau: http://www.prb.org/

Pharos: https://www.pharos.nl/

Plan International UK: https://plan-uk.org/

Professionals Against GBV, UK: https://professionalsagainstgbv.org/contact-us/

PRONG: www.aprong.org

Rescue children and youth film foundation: https://www.facebook.com/rescuechildrenfilm

RESPECT FOR CHANGE: www.respectforchange.org

Safe Hands for Girls: https://www.safehandsforgirls.com/

Santé Sans Frontières (SSF): www.ssf-international.org

Sini Sanuman: StopExcision.net

Social reform centre: http://www.sorec.org/webmail

SOS AFRICAINES EN DANGER: sosafricainesendanger.org

SOS/Jeunesse et Défis: www.sosjd.org

SP/CNLPE: http://courantsdefemmes.free.fr/Assoces/Burkina/CNLPE/CNLPE.html

Tackle Africa: https://tackleafrica.org/

Tanzania Development Trust/Crowd2Map:

Tamazight Women Movement: https://www.facebook.com/tamazightwomanmovement/ https://crowd2map.org/ 

THE GIRLS' AGENDA: www.thegirlsagenda.org

The Girl Generation: www.thegirlgeneration.org

The Woman Boss: https://www.thewomanboss.com/

Think Young Women: https://www.thegirlgeneration.org/organisations/think-young-women

UNAF, Spain: www.unaf.org 

Voie de Femmes Guinée: https://www.facebook.com/Voie-De-Femmes-De-Guin%C3%A9e-241032693252149/

Wadi e.V.: https://wadi-online.de/

Working Fingers: https://workingfingersg.org/

Youth Changers Kenya: http://youthchangerskenya.blogspot.com/

Youth take lead: https://www.youthleadap.org/

African Institute for Children Studies:  www.institutechildstudies.org

CEFOREP: www.ceforep.org

Center for Global Health, Kenya Medical Research Institute: https://www.kemri.org/centre-for-global-health-research-cghr-kisumu/

International Centre for Reproductive Health, Ghent University: https://ec.europa.eu/justice/grants/results/daphne-toolkit/content/icrh-international-centre-reproductive-health_en


Denis Nzioka News Agency and Service: https://denisnzioka.co.ke

Goldsmith Chambers / University of Cambridge: www.charlotteproudman.com

Middelburg Human Rights Law Consultancy: https://www.annemariemiddelburg.com/

Shangazi Emma-Claudine Youtube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/c/EmmaClaudineNtirenganya

Tony Mwebia: https://tonymwebia.co.ke/



Brian Earp: https://oxford.academia.edu/BrianDEarp

Elise Johansen, Norwegian Centre of Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies: https://www.nkvts.no/ansatt/ragnhild-elise-johansen/

Forum Suisse pour l'Etude des Migrations et de la Population, Université de Neuchâtel: http://unine.academia.edu/DinaBader

Malmö University: https://www.mah.se/fakulteter-och-omraden/Halsa-och-samhalle-startsida/HS_Forskning/Forskares-enskilda-sidor/HS_Sara_Johnsdotter/Sara-Johnsdotter-PhD-in-Social-Anthropology



Lorna Andisi: https://andisilorna.wordpress.com/author/andisilorna/



Isatou Jallow: https://elitesha.wordpress.com/

Miss Ô - Ethnilicious: Ethnilicious.com

Services santé

CeMAViE, CHU St Pierre, Belgium: https://www.stpierre-bru.be/fr/services-medicaux/gynecologie-obstetrique/320-rue-haute-1/cemavie-mutilations-genitales-feminines-1

Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale de Boromo: www.arfod.sitew.es

Centre Médical des Oliviers: https://constats.be/fr/accueil/notre-quipe

Centre Médico psychologique Françoise Minkowska Paris: www.minkowska.com

CHU de Rennes: https://www.chu-rennes.fr/

INSTITUT EN SANTE GENESIQUE: http://www.institutensantegenesique.org

Maison des femmes de Saint Denis: lamaisondesfemmes.fr



Gambia Center for Victims of Human Rights Violations: https://victimscentergm.org/

“La Communauté de pratique sur les mutilations génitales féminines” fait partie du projet “Bâtir des ponts entre l’Afrique et l’Europe pour lutter contre les MGF”, soutenu par le “Programme conjoint UNFPA-UNICEF sur l’élimination des MGF”.
Le projet est coordonné par AIDOS en partenariat avec GAMS Belgique

Les opinions exprimées sur ce site web sont celles des auteur.e.s et ne reflètent pas nécessairement la politique ou la position officielle de l’UNFPA, de l’UNICEF ou de toute autre agence ou organisation.

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