Aesthetical genital surgeries and procedures
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Aesthetical genital surgeries and procedures

Aesthetic or cosmetic genital surgeries and procedures include a wide variety of practices performed for aesthetic or sexual reasons, including labioplasty (inner labia surgery), labia majora enlargement or reduction, genital whitening, G spot injections, hymenoplasty (hymen reconstruction), laser vaginal rejuvenation, clitoral hood reduction, etc.

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Other forms of Type IV FGM
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Other forms of Type IV FGM

Type IV FGM includes a range of procedures performed on the female genitalia that do not fall under the first three types (partial or total removal of the clitoral gland, excision of the labia minora or labia majora, and infibulation). The definition of type IV has been modified in the new typology, published in 2007. It is now less detailed than the previous one (1995). Practices such as the introduction of corrosive substances and herbs into the vagina, and stretching of the labia have been removed.

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Cutting in the vaginal opening to “remove warts” (southieute) in Senegal
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Cutting in the vaginal opening to “remove warts” (southieute) in Senegal

An exploratory study by Senegalese sociologist Fatou Kebe is currently examining a practice of cutting women's vaginal openings, justified by the "removal of warts" (Southieute in Wolof). According to Kebe, this practice is common in the Wolof community in Senegal but is also practiced by the Soces in Dakar.

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Genital Piercing
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Genital Piercing

Piercing can be defined as "an opening in any part of the body through which jewellery can be worn". Among the most common forms of female genital piercing is the clitoral cap, of which there are different types. The clitoral gland or lips can also be pierced. In some cases, the labia minora or labia majora may be pierced one or more times, to be crossed by one or more rings to form a "chastity ring" (Kelly & Foster, 2012).

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Pricking
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Pricking

The piercing the clitoris or surrounding tissue, pricking, is a procedure in which the skin is pricked with a sharp object. Blood may flow but no tissue is removed and no stitching is done. Pricking is practiced in different communities around the world, either as a traditional form of FGM or as a substitute for more extensive excision. The practice is classified by the WHO as Type IV FGM. (WHO, 2008)

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